Timor-Leste, or Timor Lorosa’e – ‘Timor of the rising sun’ – is situated on the eastern part of the island of Timor, the easternmost of the Lesser Sunda islands. It is bordered on the west by the Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur. To the north lie the Savu Sea and the Strait of Wetar. To the south, 500 kilometres across the Timor Sea, is Australia. Also part of the national territory of Timor-Leste is the enclave of Oecussi in the western part of Timor island and the islands of Ataúro and Jaco , giving a total land area of 14,919 sq km. 

Timor’s relief is broadly characterized by a core of rugged hills and mountains consisting of a confused mass of knife-edged ridges and craggy upland blocks. The land rises to 2,000 metres and above, including Mount Ramelau at 3,000 metres. Around 44% of Timor-Leste may have a slope of approximately 40%, which, combined with heavy rainfall, encourages soil erosion. The climate is hot, with an average temperature of 24°C and around 80% humidity. During the dry season, Timor-Leste has moderate winds and slightly milder temperatures – 24°C on the coastline and 20°C or lower in the mountains. But between November and April, in the monsoon season, the rivers become torrents due to extremely high precipitation. During this period, the average temperature on the coast is about 25°C. On the northern coast, the rainfall ranges from 500 to 1,000 millimetres per year and there is only one harvest. The southern coastal plain, however, can receive over 2,000 millimetres and has two wet seasons and two harvests. The island is also affected by El Niño-related weather anomalies. 

The capital, largest city and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau. Codo is located in the suco of Maina II, within the sub-district and district of Lautem. It resides North-West of Lospalos at an elevation of roughly 400 metres in an area punctuated by hills and mountains.